Senior Staff


Senior Research staff at MAPrc include psychiatrists, clinical psychologists, neuropsychologists, neuroscientists, and clinical researchers. They are a highly dedicated group with postgraduate research qualifications and/or substantial clinical research experience. Senior Research staff contribute to the strategic research direction of MAPrc, and occupy a diverse range of roles across all research streams. Primary responsibilities of MAPrc senior research staff include the coordination and management of research projects (under the guidance of the Executive Team), mentoring and supervising junior researchers and students, teaching, applying for competitive research funding, presenting at research conferences and seminars, and preparing research reports for publication.








Associate Professor Kate Hoy


Associate Professor Kate Hoy 

Deputy Director, Therapeutic Brain Stimulation
Head, Cognitive Therapeutics Research Program

BBNSc (Hons), DPsych (Clin Neuro)

A/Prof Kate Hoy is an NHMRC Fellow and Clinical Neuropsychologist at MAPrc where she heads the Cognitive Therapeutics Research Program, and is Deputy Director of Therapeutic Brain Stimulation. 

Kate’s research is focused on the development of novel biological treatments for cognitive impairment in both psychiatric and neurological illnesses. Specifically, her group investigates the effects of brain stimulation techniques such as transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS), transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation (tACS), transcranial Random Noise Stimulation (tRNS), Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS), Theta-Burst Stimulation (TBS) and Magnetic Seizure Therapy (MST).

She is currently conducting clinical trials aimed at improving cognition in patiens with schizophrenia and Alzheimer's, as well as in healthy older adults. Kate's team is also conducting research looking at cognitive impairment in head injury and mild cognitive impairment, as well as investigating ways in which to optimise efficacy of prefrontal brain stimulation techniques.  

Kate has worked in brain stimulation research for more than 14 years, has published 80 scientific articles and 2 book chapters, and received over 3.6 million dollars competitive funding.  She is an emerging leader in clinical research, having been awarded three successive NHMRC Fellowships, a prestigous NHMRC excellence award and the 2017 Victorian Telstra Business Women’s Award for Academia.


Kate is currently a member of the Faculty of Medicine Research Committee, a past member of the Monash ECR network, was the inaugral ECR representative on the Monash Research Committee, and is a former Deputy Chair of the Australian Academy of Science EMCR Forum, an advocacy group for early to mid-career researchers. Kate also initiated, and maintains, the women in brainstim database site aimed at addressing the extreme gender imbalances at international brain stimulation conferences.  Go to to find out more and register.


Kate is passionate about communicating science to the public, not only her own research, but the importance and impact of science in general. She gives regular talks on her research to a range of audiences, she is active on twitter, has published articles in consumer targeted magazines (i.e. Link Disability Magazine, Australian Quarterly) and on the conversation website, and has been interviewed in the media on a number of occaisions. Kate was awarded a 2013 Victorian Tall Poppy Science Award  in recognition of both her research excellence and commitment to science communication. 

For a list of current projects see the Cognitive Therapeutics Research Program current research page.

If you would like to find out more about Kate’s research, please contact 

Watch A/Prof Kate Hoy discuss her work at MAPrc: 



Cognitive Therapeutics Research Team


Research Co-ordinator: Ms Melanie Emonson 


Current Students:  Mr Aron Hill (PhD, Monash University, Main Supervisor)  

                                 Ms Hannah Coyle (DPsych, Monash University, Main Supervisor)

                  Ms Melanie Emonson (DPsych, Monash University, Main Supervisor)  

                  Mr SungWook Chung (PhD, Monash University) 

                                 Mr Oscar Murphy (DPsych, Monash University)

                                 Dr Leo Chen (PhD, Monash University)

                                 Mr Robert Cooper (PhD, Monash University)


Alumni:                   Ms Kirsten Gainsford (Research Assistant)

                                Ms Caitlyn Rogers (Research Assistant)



                                Ms Kirstyn Windsor (DPsych, Deakin University) 

                                Dr Karyn Richardson (Former DPsych Student)    

                                Dr Neil Bailey (Post-Doctoral Researcher, Former PhD Student)

   Ms Sara Arnold (Research Assistant)

                                Dr Christina Furtado (DPsych, Monash University)

                                Dr Sophie Anderson (Hons and DPsych, Monash University)

                                Ms Marie Claire Davis (Masters, Melbourne University)

                                Ms Florence Teo (Hons, Monash UniversityMain Supervisor)

                                Mr Paul Mulquinney (Hons, Monash UniversityMain Supervisor)

                                Mr Macro Michael (BMedSci, Monash UniversityMain Supervisor)

                                Dr Alex Lowe (Visiting international Medical Student, Homerton University Hospital)

                                Mr Joshua John (Visiting international PhD student, University of South Carolina)

                                Mr Dean Whitty (BMedSci, Monash UniversityMain Supervisor)

                                Ms Laura Blair-West (BMedSci, Monash University)

    Ms Katernia Mei Ruu Lau (Honours, Monash UniversityMain Supervisor)

                                 Mr Nikolay Kozlov (Honours, Monash University, Main Supervisor)

                                 Ms Bridgette Pianta (Honours, Monash University)                                


Selected Recent Publications

Hill A, Rogasch NC, Fitzgerald PB, Hoy K.  Effects of Prefrontal Bipolar and High-Definition Transcranial Direct Currents Stimulation on Cortical Reactivity and Working Memory in Healthy Adults. Neuroimage, In Press 2017.

Hoy KE. Gender Imbalance at Brain Stimulation Conferences: We have a problem and it is everyone's problem. [Letter to the Editor]. Brain Stimulation, 10(1) 155-156, 2017.

Hoy KE, Bailey NW, Michael M, Fitzgibbon, B, Rogasch, N, Sakei T, Fitzgerald PB. Enhancement of working memory and task related oscillatory activity following intermittent Theta Burst Stimulation in healthy controls. Cerebral Cortex, 26(12): 4563-4573, 2016.

Hill A, Rogasch NC, Fitzgerald PB, Hoy K. TMS-EEG a window into the neurophysiological effects of transcranial electrical stimulation in non-motor brain regions. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews. 64, 175-184. 2016. 

Hill A, Fitzgerald PB, Hoy KE. Effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation on working and recognition memory: a systematic review and meta-analysis of findings from healthy and neuropsychiatric population. Brain Stimulation 9(2):197-208. 2016.

Hoy KE, Fitzgerald PB. From bench to clinic to community: The far reaching implications of basic research. [Letter to the Editor] PNAS. 112(42), 2015

Hoy KE, Bailey NW, Arnold SL, Fitzgerald PB. The effect of tDCS on gamma activity and working memory in schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research. 228(2), 191-196, 2015  

Hoy KE, Bailey NW, Arnold SL, John J, Daskalakis ZJ, Fitzgerald PB. The effect of γ-tACS on working memory performance in healthy controls. Brain and Cognition. 101; 51-56, 2015 

Hoy KE, Arnold S, Emonson M, Daskalakis ZJ, Fitzgerald PB.  An investigation into effects of tDCS dose on cognitive performance over time in patients with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 155, 96–100; 2014

Hoy KE, Emonson M, Arnold S, Thomson R, Daskalakis ZJ, Fitzgerald PB.  Testing the Limits: Investigating the effect of tDCS dose on working memory enhancement in healthy controls. Neuropsychologia, 51; 1777-1784, 2013.

Hoy KE, Fitzgerald PB. Brain stimulation in psychiatry and its effects on cognition.  Nature Reviews Neurology. 6, 267–275, 2010.

Hoy KE, Thomson RH, Cherk M, Yap KSK, Daskalakis ZJ, Fitzgerald PB. Effect of magnetic seizure therapy on regional brain glucose metabolism in major depression. Psychiatry Research Neuroimaging, 211(2); 169-175, 2013.

Hoy KE, Segrave RA, Daskalakis ZJ, Fitzgerald PB. Investigating the relationship between cognitive change and antidepressant response following rTMS: A large scale retrospective study. Brain Stimulation 5(4): 539-4, 2012.

Hoy KE, Fitzgerald PB. Magnetic Seizure Therapy for Treatment Resistant Depression. Expert Review of Medical Devices. 8(6):723-32., 2011

Hoy KE, Enticott PG, Daskalakis Z, Fitzgerald PB. Can a behavioural intervention enhance the effect of rTMS on mood? Brain Stimulation. 4; 84-89, 2011

Hoy KE, Fitzgerald PB. Introducing Magnetic Seizure Therapy: A novel therapy for treatment resistant depression.  Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. 44; 591-598, 2010.



Hoy_Letter.pdf311.05 KB

Adjunct Professor Brian Lithgow

Adjunct Professor Brian Lithgow BSc BE MEngSc SMIEEE

Brian Lithgow has been interested in vestibular and auditory electroneurophysiology, signal processing, and the development of diagnostics throughout his career. More recently, he has done work in development of:
  • Signal processing algorithms for vestibular diagnostics (Meniere’s Disease, BPPV).
  • Signal processing algorithms for auditory prosthesis.
  • Models for vestibular dynamic responses of the semicircular canals and otolithic organs.
  • Models for electrical and audio stimulation of the cochlea consequent to high pulse rate electrical stimulation of the cochlea and modiolar stimulation.
  • Improved understanding of auditory and vestibular electroneurophysiology.
  • Speech Processing and speaker identification - improvements to and development of algorithms using optimization techniques and wavelet techniques. One patent has been generated.
  • And most recently diagnostic development for neurological and neurodegenerative disorders Parkinson’s Disease, Schizophrenia, Meniere’s and Depression. Two patents have been generated.
  • This work is being extended into separating unipolar and bipolar depression, separating Autism, Asperger’s and ADHD, separating Meniere’s Disease, peripheral vertigo and Central vertigo, and finally separating schizo-effective disorder and schizophrenia.
  • This application is to extended current research into separating Lewy Body Dementia, Parkinson’s Disease Dementia and Alzheimer’s Disease.  
Along the way he was a founder of the Monash University Centre for Biomedical Engineering (MUCBE) and is currently the Director of Teaching for MUCBE, Leader of the Diagnostic and Neurosignal Processing Research Group at Monash University and a Senior Research Fellow at the Alfred Psychiatric Research Centre where he has a second new fully equipped research laboratory 'The Diagnostic and Neurosignal Processing Research Laboratory'. He is also a visiting Researcher with the University of  Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.
Previous industry/academic/research positions include:
1.      Chief Electronic Design Engineer at Hudson-Allen Ltd. - DSP encryption
2.      Deputy Head and acting Director of Biomedical Engineering at the Alfred Hospital.
3.      Lecturer (Biophysics) Swinburne University
4.      Weapons Electronic Engineering Officer-Royal Australian Navy
Over the past three years his neurodiagnostic research has attracted two ARC linkage grants (>$350,000), one NHMRC grant ($116,000), five funded scholarships, Monash University commercialisation funding exceeding $100,000, industry cash funding exceeding $220,000 and one ARC small grant ($12,000). A Government Comet grant for commercialising this research has been recently awarded for $76,000. Three international and one PCT Patents have been generated/applied for and a company formed to commercialise the neurodiagnostics research namely Neural Diagnostics Pty Ltd.
PUBLICATIONS (last three years):- 2 Patents, 9 Refereed Journal papers, 1 Refereed Journal abstract, 10 refereed conference papers, 1 Refereed Conference abstract.

Dr Neil Bailey

Neil Bailey completed his PhD in neuroscience in August 2012. His thesis used brain imaging techniques to examine changes in brain activity during cognitive processing in major depressive disorder following a traumatic brain injury.

His current work is focused on the neural mechanisms of action that lead to improved mental health as a result of mindfulness meditation, and using novel brain imaging techniques to attempt to predict response to brain stimulation treatment for depression.

Dr Carolyn Breadon

 Dr Carolyn Breadon joined the Women's Mental Health Team in June 2017 as a Consultant Psychiatrist.

Dr Robin Cash

Dr Robin Cash is a Research Fellow in the Therapeutic Brain Stimulation Team

Dr Bernadette Fitzgibbon

Head, Pain and Affective Neuroscience Unit

Dr Fitzgibbon is a Senior Research Fellow at Monash University where she holds a National Health and Medical Research Early Career Fellowship. She is the head of the “Pain and Affective Neuroscience Unit” within the Therapeutic Brain Stimulation division of Monash Alfred Psychiatry Research Centre (MAPrc), a department of Monash University’s Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences.   

Bernadette’s research program aims to better understand the mechanisms underpinning how pain can become chronic as well as novel therapeutics to treat persistent pain. Her work is driven by the integration of psychosocial and biological processes linked to the development and maintenance of pain which are in turn incorporated into her application of brain stimulation approaches.

Bernadette’s research uses a range of methods, including Theta-Burst Stimulation (TBS), Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS), transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS), transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation (tACS), electroencephalogram (EEG), concurrent TMS-EEG, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Electrocardiography (ECG) and Galvanic Skin Resistance (GSR), as well as the use of novel at-home brain stimulation adjunctive with psychological therapies. 

She has received several awards for her research including the national 2014 Bethlehem Griffiths Research Foundation Young Investigator of the Year award, a 2014 Young Tall Poppy Science Award through the Australian Institute of Policy and Science and in 2018 was selected for the Veski inspiring women STEM sidebyside program. She is also dedicated to the advancement of brain sciences within Australia, as reflected in role as chair of the Australian Brain Alliance EMCR Network and an Executive Member of the Australian Brain Alliance, an initiative of the Australian Academy of Science to bring together strategic brain research across Australia.


Research Interests 

·         Pain 

·         Cognition

·         Social Processes

·         Trauma

·         Neurotechnology

·         Brain Stimulation

Bernadette is available to supervise Honours and PhD students

If you would like to find out more about Bernadette’s research, please contact her on

Key papers: 


1.      Che. X, Cash, R., Chung-Wook, S., Fitzgerald, P.B., FITZGIBBON, B.M.  Investigating the influence of social support on experimental pain and related physiological arousal: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews (accepted 9/07/2018).


2.      Roebuck, G.S., Urquhart, D.M., Knox, L., Fitzgerald, P.B., Cicuttini, F.M., Lee, S. and FITZGIBBON, B.M., Psychological factors associated with ultra-marathon runners’ supra-normal pain tolerance: a pilot study. The Journal of Pain. (accepted 22/06/2018).

3.      FITZGIBBON, B.M, Hoy, KE., Knox, LA., Guymer, EK., Littlejohn, G., Elliot, D., Wambeek, LE , McQueen, S., Elford, KA., Lee, SJ., Enticott, PG. , Fitzgerald, PB. (2018). Evidence for the improvement of fatigue in fibromyalgia: a 4-week left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation randomised-controlled trial. European Journal of Pain. 22(7), 1255-1267.

4.      Che, X., Cash, R., Fitzgerald, P., FITZGIBBON, B.M. (2018). The social regulation of pain: autonomic and neurophysiological changes associated with perceived threat. Journal of Pain, 19(5), 496-505.

5.      FITZGIBBON, B.M., Kirkovski, M., Bailey, N., Thomson, R., Eisenberger, N., Enticott, P. Fitzgerald, P.B. (2017). Low-Frequency brain stimulation to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex increases the negative impact of social exclusion among those high in personal distress. Social Neuroscience. 12(3), 237-241.

6.      FITZGIBBON, B.M. Hoy, K.E., Guymer, E.K., Littlejohn, G.O., Fitzgerald, P.B. (2016) Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for pain (rTMS): is it too early to standardise rTMS protocols? Pain. 157(5):1174-5.

7.      FITZGIBBON, B.M., Giummarra, M.J., Georgiou-Karistianis, N., Enticott, P.G., Bradshaw, J.L. (2010) Shared pain: From empathy to synaesthesia. Neuroscience and Biobehavioural Reviews, 34, 500-512.

For a full list of articles, please see:

Dr Caroline Gurvich

 Dr Caroline Gurvich BA/BSc (hons), DPsych (ClinNeuro), MAPS

Caroline is a Senior Research Fellow and a clinical neuropsychologist at MAPrc.
Caroline is the Deputy Director of the Women’s Mental Health division at MAPrc and leads the Cognitive Neuroscience research unit within the Women’s Mental Health division. Caroline’s research explores the interplay between biological factors (such as genetic effects and hormones) and lifestyle factors (such as trauma and stress) on cognition in mental illness. Caroline has also recently established a clinical neuropsychology service that runs through MAPrc.

Caroline has close collaborations with Prof Susan Rossell, Director: Centre for Mental Health, Swinburne University, and her cognitive neuropsychiatry team.  Together, they have established an ongoing genes and cognition biodatabank to better understand genetic mechanisms underpinning cognitive disturbances across the psychosis continuum.

Key areas of interest
Eye movements in psychiatry
Sex hormones and cognition
Stress hormones, trauma and cognition
Dopaminergic genes and cognition 
Cognition across the psychosis continuum: schizotypy to schizophrenia
If you would like to find out more about Caroline’s research, please contact her:
Selected Papers
Myles, J., Rossell, S., Phillipou, Thomas, E., Gurvich, C. Insights to the schizophrenia continuum: A systematic review of saccadic eye movements in schizotypy and biological relatives of schizophrenia patients. Neuroscience and Biobehavioural Reviews, 72, 278-300. 
Gurvich, C; Bozaoglu, K; Neill, E; Van Rheenen, T; Tan, E; Louise, S & Rossell, S. (2015)The dopamine D1 receptor gene is associated with negative schizotypy in a non-clinical sample Psychiatry Research, 235, 213-214.
Gurvich, C., & Rossell., S (2015) Editorial: Cognition across the psychiatric disorder spectrum: From mental health to clinical diagnosis Frontiers in Psychiatry 6(AUG), 110. 
Carruthers S, Gurvich C, Rossell, S. (2015) The muscarinic system, cognition and schizophrenia. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 55:393-402. 
Louise, S., Gurvich, C., Neill, E., Tan, E., Van Rheenen, T., & Rossell, S. (2015) Schizotypal traits are associated with impairments in executive functioning and working memory in healthy adults, Frontiers in Psychiatry, 6(JUN) 79. 
Gurvich, C., & Rossell, S. L. (2015). Dopamine and cognitive control: Sex-by-genotype interactions influence the capacity to switch attention. Behav Brain Res, 281C, 96-101. 
Gurvich, C. T., & Rossell, S. L. (2014). Genetic variations in dopamine and inhibitory control: Lack of influence on action restraint. Behav Brain Res, 267C, 12-16. 
Neill, E., Gurvich, C., & Rossell, S. L. (2014). Category fluency in schizophrenia research: is it an executive or semantic measure? Cogn Neuropsychiatry, 19(1), 81-95. 
Warren, A., Gurvich, C., Worsley, R., & Kulkarni, J. (2014). A systematic review of the impact of oral contraceptives on cognition. Contraception, 90(2), 111-116. 
Gurvich, C., Maller, J. J., Lithgow, B., Haghgooie, S., & Kulkarni, J. (2013). Vestibular insights into cognition and psychiatry. Brain Res, 1537, 244-259. 
Kulkarni, J., Gurvich, C.,. . . Davis, S. R. (2010). Piloting the effective therapeutic dose of adjunctive selective estrogen receptor modulator treatment in postmenopausal women with schizophrenia. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 35(8), 1142-1147. 
Gurvich, C. T., Fitzgerald, P. B., Georgiou-Karistianis, N., & White, O. B. (2008). Saccadic impairment in schizophrenia with prominent negative symptoms. Neuroreport, 19(14), 1435-1439. 
Winograd-Gurvich, C., Fitzgerald, P. B., Georgiou-Karistianis, N., Millist, L., & White, O. (2008). Inhibitory control and spatial working memory: a saccadic eye movement study of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res, 157(1-3), 9-19. 
Gurvich, C., Georgiou-Karistianis, N., Fitzgerald, P. B., Millist, L., & White, O. B. (2007). Inhibitory control and spatial working memory in Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord, 22(10), 1444-1450. 
Winograd-Gurvich, C., Fitzgerald, P. B., Georgiou-Karistianis, N., Bradshaw, J. L., & White, O. B. (2006). Negative symptoms: A review of schizophrenia, melancholic depression and Parkinson's disease. Brain Res Bull, 70(4-6), 312-321. 
Winograd-Gurvich, C., et al (2006). Ocular motor differences between melancholic and non-melancholic depression. J Affect Disord, 93(1-3), 193-203. 
Winograd-Gurvich, C., et al (2006). Self-paced and reprogrammed saccades: differences between melancholic and non-melancholic depression. Neurosci Res, 56(3), 253-260. 
Winograd-Gurvich, C., et al., (2006). Self-paced saccades and saccades to oddball targets in Parkinson's disease. Brain Res, 1106(1), 134-141.
Student Supervision and Research Team members
Current Student Supervision
Elizabeth Thomas (Monash University, PhD)
Jacqueline Riddiford, (Monash University, PhD)
Heather Gilbert (Monash University, PhD)
Sean Carruthers (Swinburne University, PhD)
Joshua Kontrobarksy BMedSci (Hons)
Jacinta Cheng BMedSci (Hons)
Research Assistant
Ms Jessica Myles (Current)
Ms Stephanie Louise (Past)
Completed Student Supervision
Sacha Filia (Monash University, PhD 2016)
Phillip Law (Monash University, PhD 2017)
Mehrnaz Shoushstarian (Monash University, PhD  2008).
Kay McCauley (Monash University, PhD 2009)
Annabelle Warren BMedSci (Hons) 2014
Elizabeth Thomas BBioMedSci (Hons) 2014
Jessica Myles Psychology (Hons) 2014
Stephanie Louise Psychology (Hons) 2013
Peter Donaldson Psychology (Hons) 2013
Jacqueline Riddiford Psychology (Hons) 2012
Abhasiri Chutikul Psychology (Hons) 2010
Clare Stevenson BBehNeuroscience (Hons) 2010

Ms Emmy Gavrilidis

Emmy Gavrilidis  

BAppSci (Psychology)– Women’s Mental Health Division Research Manager

Emmy Gavrilidis is the Women's Mental Health Division Research Manager at MAPrc, a position she has held since April 2017.  Prior to this  Ms Gavrilidis was the Women’s Mental Health Division Coordinator (2011-2017) and Research Assistant (2007-2011).  She has extensive research experience and is involved in many aspects of research including project development, grant applications, setup of new studies including ethics, honours student project supervision, conference management , budgeting and finance aspects of research. She is responsible for supporting strategic and operational  processes with the goal to ensure growth and success of the division in research, teaching, learning and engagement. She provides project management, financial, human resources and general infrastructure oversight. 




Dr Manreena Kaur

Dr Manreena Kaur is an  NHMRC Peter Doherty Research Fellow in the Therapeutic Brain Stimulation Team

Dr Stuart Lee

Having completed a Doctorate in Clinical Neuropsychology with Monash University and worked at the Monash Alfred Psychiatry Research Centre since 2006, I am interested in the cognitive and other psychological consequences of psychiatric, neurological and oncology disorders and novel ways to treat them. All too often treatment for these disorders focuses on the medical options, with the psychological distress or thinking and memory difficulties that have a profound effect on quality of life often missed.

As a clinical research centre, working at MAP-RC has enabled me to work closely with staff in the Adult Psychiatry and Oncology Services of The Alfred hospital. This has provided the opportunity to complete a range of projects looking to improve the way care is delivered in these services. These include implementing routine distress screening on the inpatient oncology ward, evaluating the impact of an interagency initiative to improve mental health care for people living homeless, introducing sensory assessment and therapy to reduce seclusion use in inpatient psychiatry, and the benefit of creative therapies in acute psychiatry.

Research Interests
Psychiatric Service Evaluation
Cognition in Psychiatry
Cognitive and Psychological Impact of Cancer
Women’s Mental Health
Lecturing in MBBS 4071
Lab tutor for Research Design and Analysis PSY3062
Lab tutor for PSY2051






Dr Jerome Maller


Jerome Maller

Dr Jerome Maller is a Neuroscientist and Adjunct Associate Professor in the Therapeutic Brain Stimulation stream at MAPrc. His most recent fellowship was as an NHMRC Industry Career Development Fellow (CDF) with a focus on a specialised MRI technique referred to as Susceptibility Weighted Imaging (SWI) and its clinical relevance in the context of traumatic brain injury (TBI).  He previously completed a Centre for Excellence in Traumatic Brain Injury Research (CETBIR) Acute Care Fellowship focussing on blood-brain barrier permeability, and a Victorian Neurotrauma Initiative Research Fellowship using an MRI technique called Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) to demonstrate that it can be predictive of the development of major depression after experiencing a TBI. His regular activities also involve other brain-related imaging and/or stimulation technologies (e.g. transcranial magnetic stimulation [TMS], electroencephalography [EEG], near infra-red [NIR], thermography [forward looking IR]). Dr Maller is involved in many local and international studies including the Monash University Bionic Eye study, the ANU’s PATH Through Life study, and the French ‘3-cities’ study. Dr Maller has over 100 peer-reviewed journal publications and has been involved in successfully obtaining over $4 million in grant funding. He is also an Adjunct Associate Professor at the Australian National University, and a MRI Clinical Science Specialist at General Electric Healthcare, specializing in prototype MRI.

Dr Maller has compiled the Handbook of Structural Brain MRI Analysis for those new to neuroimaging. It can be found here.


Selected publications

Callaghan F, Maller JJ, Welton T, Middione MJ, Shankaranaranayan A, Grieve SM. (2018). Toward personalized diffusion MRI in psychiatry: improved delineation of fibre bundles with the highest-ever angular resolution in vivo tractography. Translational Psychiatry 8(1):91-100.


Maller JJ, Broadhouse K, Rush AJ, Gordon E, Koslow S, Grieve SM. (2018). Increased hippocampal tail volume predicts depression status and remission to anti-depressant medications in major depression. Molecular Psychiatry 23(8):1737-44.


Grieve SM, Maller JJ. (2017). High-resolution diffusion imaging – ready to become more than just a research tool in psychiatry? Molecular Psychiatry 22(8):1082-4.


Maller JJ, Thomson RH, McQueen S, Elliott D, Fitzgerald PB. (2016). Factors to consider when applying transcranial magnetic stimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex when resting motor threshold is asymmetric: A case study. Bioelectromagnetics 37(2):130-5.


Maller JJ, Anderson R, Thomson RH, Rosenfeld JV, Daskalakis ZJ, Fitzgerald PB. (2015). Occipital bending (Yakovlevian torque) in bipolar depression. Psychiatry Research Neuroimaging 231(1):8-14.


Maller JJ. (2014). Neuroplasticity in normal and brain injured patients: Potential relevance of ear wiggling locus of control and cortical projections. Medical Hypotheses 83(6):838-843.



Maller JJ, Thomson RH, Pannek K, Bailey N, Lewis PM, Fitzgerald PB. (2014). Volumetrics relate to the development of depression after traumatic brain injury. Behavioural Brain Research S0166-4328(14):00350-7.


Maller JJ, Thomson RHS, Rosenfeld JV, Anderson R, Daskalakis ZJ, Fitzgerald PB. (2014). Occipital bending in depression. Brain 137(Pt 6):1830-7.


Maller JJ, Thomson RHS, Pannek K, Rose SE, Bailey N, Lewis PM, Fitzgerald PB. (2014). The (eigen)value of diffusion tensor imaging to investigate depression after traumatic brain injury. Human Brain Mapping 35(1):227-37.


Gurvich  C*, Maller JJ*, Lithgow B, Haghgooie S, Kulkarni J. (2013). Vestibular insights into cognition and psychiatry.Brain Research 1537:244-59. *Co-first authors.

Conditions/Disorders Investigated

Major depression disorder                                             

Bipolar disorder


Traumatic brain injury (TBI)

And a number of others, such as visual neglect, hydrocephalus, and pre-clinical dementia

Of course, I also research healthy people!


We acquire and analyze a variety of MRI scans acquired in scanners ranging in magnetic strength (1.5T to 7T), including:



Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI)

Susceptibility Weighted Imaging (SWI)

MRS (MR Spectroscopy)

fMRI (Functional MRI)


I have been involved in TMS and EEG research, separately and combined, since 2006. Led by Prof Paul B Fitzgerald, we have produced a plethora of peer-reviewed publications and elucidated a number of significant findings.

We regularly utilise MRI technology to refine our clinical and research TMS and/or EEG techniques. For example, we have published papers directly related to the accuracy of TMS coil placement by utilising magnetic stereotaxic fields.


Thermography (Far length or Forward Looking IR)

I have been utilising FL-IR technology for a number of years in the context of psychiatry research. For example, we have found that eye temperature is lower in patients with major depression than in healthy people, a finding we anticipate of publishing shortly. Pic:

The lab has begun to use FL-IR cameras for other purposes, such as visualising vasculature. We use mainly Testo 875-1 (8 to 12 micron) and Agema Thermovision 450 (2 to 5 micron), as well as highly-sensitive near infrared (NIR) cameras (specifically the Watec 902H Supreme).


EVestG (Trade Mark) is a method of recording electrical signals from the vestibular system by inserting a probe in the ear canal. The recordings are taken while the person is being tilted in a chair to stimulate the vestibular system. The developers of this technology have claimed that it is able to accurately diagnose a range of mental and neurological disorders, including schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder and Alzheimer’s disease.




Dr Steven Miller

Dr Steven Miller is a clinician in occupational and pain medicine and a researcher in clinical neuroscience, visual neuroscience and consciousness science. He heads the Perceptual and Clinical Neuroscience Laboratory at MAPrc, which is engaged in basic science and clinical research. The lab has also recently entered the virtual research environment with its new Binocular Rivalry Online project. 


Dr Miller has made, and continues to make, significant contributions to science including: 

- Discovering that the rate of binocular rivalry is slow in bipolar disorder – Published in Proceedings of the Royal Society of London and Psychological Medicine. (With J. Pettigrew)

- Demonstrating that an individual’s binocular rivalry rate is under substantial genetic control – Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA. (With N. Martin, M. Wright and colleagues)

- Performing the first brain stimulation experiments on binocular rivalry – Current Biology; featured on the front cover. (With J. Pettigrew and colleagues)

- Proposing a new neurophysiological model of binocular rivalry and a new pathophysiological model of bipolar disorder – Current Biology and Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. (With J. Pettigrew)

- Developing an online binocular rivalry test for convenient and low-resource testing of large-scale clinical and control samples (thousands to tens of thousands of subjects), aiming to (i) improve genome-wide association studies of clinical disorders, (ii) examine clinical disorder diagnostic discrimination, and (iii) facilitate standardisation of behavioural protocols for binocular rivalry testing. (With P.Law, Monash Faculty of IT, and QIMR Berghofer)

- Driving research on neuromodulation with caloric vestibular stimulation — a simple, safe, affordable and non-invasive brain stimulation technique — to treat various clinical conditions. (With T. Ngo)

- Performing detailed analyses of empirical and conceptual foundations of consciousness science, and proposing new foundations for this nascent discipline. 

Dr Miller has been awarded competitive funding from NHMRC, Victorian Neurotrauma Initiative, Defence Health Foundation, The Brain and Behavior Foundation (USA) and Monash Institute of Medical Engineering. Most recently, Dr Miller's Binocular Rivalry Online project was awarded a Victorian Medical Research Acceleration Fund grant from the Victorian Government Department of Health and Human Services. Dr Miller previously held an NHMRC Medical Post-Graduate Research Scholarship and a Victorian Neurotrauma Initiative Early Career Practitioner Fellowship. He was awarded a prestigious NARSAD Young Investigator Grant from the Brain and Behaviour Foundation (USA). Dr Miller sits on the Clinical Panel of the Victorian Government’s Transport Accident Commission and WorkSafe.  

The Perceptual and Clinical Neuroscience Laboratory’s interests include:


Binocular Rivalry

- Mechanisms of binocular rivalry, and attentional processing during rivalry

- Binocular rivalry in clinical psychiatric groups, especially bipolar disorder

- Binocular rivalry in genetic and neurological conditions

- Large-scale genetic and clinical studies of binocular rivalry

- Development of a web-based testing platform for large-scale studies of binocular rivalry and standardised binocular rivalry testing


Brain Stimulation / Neuromodulation

- Non-invasive neuromodulation techniques, particularly caloric vestibular stimulation (CVS) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)

- Non-invasive neuromodulation of persistent pain

- Non-invasive neuromodulation of mania and depression

- Non-invasive neuromodulation of other psychiatric and neurologic conditions


Latest neuromodulation data


The Scientific Study of Consciousness

- Binocular rivalry and the scientific study of consciousness

- Foundational issues in the science and philosophy of consciousness

- Interpreting brain stimulation and inhibition experiments in consciousness science



Recent books




Current staff:

Dr Phillip Law

Lab Alumni:

Dr Trung Ngo (NHMRC Clinical Post-Doctoral Fellowship)

Dr Bryan Paton (PhD; main supervisor Jakob Hohwy)

Dr Wendy Barsdell (DPsych)

Mr Colin Palmer (Phil Hons; main supervisor Jakob Hohwy)

Ms Jacqui Leonard (Psych Hons)

Interested students please contact:

Selected Publications:

Law PCF, Gurvich CT, Ngo TT, Miller SM (2017). Evidence that eye-movement profiles do not explain slow binocular rivalry rate in bipolar disorder: Support for a perceptual endophenotype. Bipolar Disorders 19(6): 1–12.


Law PCF, Miller SM, Ngo TT (2017). The effect of stimulus strength on binocular rivalry rate in healthy individuals: Implications for studies of genetic, clinical, and individual differences. Physiology & Behavior 191: 127–136. 


Miller SM (2016). Vestibular neuromodulation: Stimulating the neural crossroads of psychiatric illness. Bipolar Disorders, 18(6), 539–543.


Law PCF, Riddiford JA, Paton BK, Gurvich CT, Ngo TT, Miller SM (2015). No relationship between binocular rivalry rate and eye-movement profiles in healthy individuals: A Bayes factor analysis. Perception 44 (6): 643–661.

Miller SM (2014). Closing in on the constitution of consciousness. Frontiers in Psychology, 5: 1293. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01293

Law PCF, Paton BK, Thomson RH, Liu GB, Miller SM, Ngo TT (2013). Dichoptic viewing methods for binocular rivalry research: Prospects for large-scale clinical and genetic studies. Twin Research and Human Genetics 16 (6): 1033–1078.

Ngo TT, Barsdell WN, Law PCF, Miller SM (2013). Binocular rivalry, brain stimulation and bipolar disorder. In S. M. Miller (Ed.), The constitution of visual consciousness: Lessons from binocular rivalry (pp. 211–252). Advances in Consciousness Research (Vol. 90). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: John Benjamins Publishing Company.     

Miller SM, Ngo TT, van Swinderen B (2012). Attentional switching in humans and flies: Rivalry in large and miniature brains. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 5: 188.

Ngo TT, Mitchell PB, Martin NG, Miller SM (2011). Psychiatric and genetic studies of binocular rivalry: An endophenotype for bipolar disorder? Acta Neuropsychiatrica 23(1): 37–42.

Miller SM, Hansell NK, Ngo TT, Liu GB, Pettigrew JD, Martin NG, Wright MJ (2010). Genetic contribution to individual variation in binocular rivalry rate. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107 (6): 2664–2668.    

Been G, Ngo TT, Miller SM, Fitzgerald PB (2007). The use tDCS and CVS as methods of non-invasive brain stimulation. Brain Research Reviews 56 (2): 346–361.

Miller SM, Ngo TT (2007). Studies of caloric vestibular stimulation: Implications for the cognitive neurosciences, the clinical neurosciences and neurophilosophy. Acta Neuropsychiatrica 19 (3): 183–203. 

Miller SM (2007). On the correlation/constitution distinction problem (and other hard problems) in the scientific study of consciousness. Acta Neuropsychiatrica, 19 (3): 159–176.

Miller SM, Gynther BD, Heslop KR, Liu GB, Mitchell PB, Ngo TT, Pettigrew JD, Geffen LB (2003). Slow binocular rivalry in bipolar disorder. Psychological Medicine 33 (4): 683–692.

Miller SM, Liu GB, Ngo TT, Hooper G, Riek S, Carson RG, Pettigrew JD (2000). Interhemispheric switching mediates perceptual rivalry. Current Biology 10 (7): 383–392.

Pettigrew JD, Miller SM (1998). A ‘sticky’ interhemispheric switch in bipolar disorder? Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B (Biological Sciences), 265 (1411): 2141–2148.


Full publication list available at: ResearchGate

Dr Gemma Sharp

Dr Gemma Sharp BSc (Mol Biol) (Hons), MSc (Oncology), Dip Lang, Grad Dip Psyc, BBSc (Hons), DPhil (Clin Psyc), MAPS

Dr Gemma Sharp is an NHMRC Early Career Fellow and Clinical Psychologist (Registrar) in the Women’s Mental Health division of MAPrc. She originally trained as a molecular biologist graduating with a Masters degree in Oncology from the University of Cambridge. She then transitioned to a career in psychology and was awarded a PhD in Clinical Psychology from Flinders University in 2017. Her PhD research examined the sociocultural and psychological predictors of women’s consideration of cosmetic genital surgery, as well as the psychological outcomes of these procedures. She subsequently extended this research to male cosmetic genital procedures. Gemma joined MAPrc in 2018 and continues to explore genital self-image and body image concerns from a psychological and biological perspective using both quantitative and qualitative research methods.  

Gemma has received a number of awards for her research including the Australian Psychological Society’s Award for an Excellent PhD Thesis in Psychology (2017) and the Mental Health Service of Australia and New Zealand Early Career Research Award for Excellence (2017), and she was named one of ABC Radio National’s Top 5 Under 40 Scientists (2017). Gemma is regularly invited to appear on television and radio and gave a TEDx talk in Brisbane in 2017. To see Gemma’s TEDx presentation go to:

Gemma is also a psychologist in private practice where she treats people with a range of mental health issues. Her particular areas of expertise are body image concerns, eating disorders and body dysmorphic disorder. She serves on the Australian Psychological Society’s National Clinical College Committee as the Early Career Representative.  

Key areas of interest:

·         Body Image

·         Cosmetic Procedures (particularly cosmetic genital procedures)

·         Eating Disorders and Body Dysmorphic Disorder

·         Psychosexual Issues

·         Psychological Interventions and Online Therapies (eTherapies)

Gemma is available to supervise Honours and PhD students

If you would like to find out more about Gemma’s research, please contact her on:

Key papers:

·         Sharp, G., & Oates, J. (2018). Non-surgical medical penile girth augmentation: A retrospective study of psychological and psychosexual outcomes. Aesthetic Surgery Journal.

·         Sharp, G., Tiggemann, M., & Mattiske, J. (2016). Psychological outcomes of labiaplasty: A prospective study. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 138, 1202-1209.

·         Sharp, G., Mattiske, J., & Vale, K. I. (2016). Motivations, expectations, and experiences of labiaplasty: A qualitative study. Aesthetic Surgery Journal, 36, 920-928.

·         Sharp, G., Tiggemann, M., & Mattiske, J. (2015). Predictors of consideration of labiaplasty: An extension of the tripartite influence model of beauty ideals. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 39, 182-193.

·         Sharp, G., Tiggemann, M., & Mattiske, J. (2014). The role of media and peer influences in Australian women’s attitudes towards cosmetic surgery. Body Image, 11, 482-487.


For a full list of articles, please see:


Dr Caroline Thew

Dr Thew is the endocrinologist at the Women's Mental Health Clinic (WMHC) and has over 20 years experience working as a clinical endocrinologist in private practice and attached to Royal Melbourne Hospital. Her PhD research topic was Studies of Insulin Resistance in Human Adiopocytes and she maintains a particular  interest in Type 11 diabetes and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. She has developed a weight loss and exercise program with the motivational psychologist at the WMHC, Cindy Yu. This is particularly helpful for patients who may have experienced weight gain as a side effect of their psychiatric medication. Dr Thew has experience in perimenopausal hormone management and this is an expanding area of clinical and research interest. She has been involved in the development of the online short course in Women's Mental Health.


Dr Natalie Thomas

Dr Natalie Thomas  Bsc(Hons) PhD

Dr Thomas joined the Women’s Mental Health Team at MAPrc in 2016. She completed a Bachelor of Science with Honours in 2008, majoring in biochemistry and molecular biology. Her interest in mental health on a human level, and perception and decision-making on a philosophical level, saw her commence her doctoral studies in molecular psychiatry within the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Melbourne. She graduated in early 2016, with her doctoral thesis titled “Investigation of potential subgroups within the schizophrenias: A study of cholinergic muscarinic receptor density and energy metabolism”. This work allowed for progress toward clinically useful biomarkers.  


Dr Thomas’ interest lies at the intercept of psychology and biology. She aims to further our understanding in psychiatric biological markers, particularly within the area of psychoneuroendocrinology, and treatment response. She asserts the importance of working within a collaborative research centre that considers biological, social, and psychological factors simultaneously, and feels extremely fortunate to be working within a research centre that follows such a practice. Under the supervision of Professor Jayashri Kulkarni, she is currently involved in research programs investigating novel treatments in borderline personality disorder and subgroups of mood disorders.